What is SSL? SSL Certificate Basics Tutorial

What is SSL? SSL Certificate Basics Tutorial
Secure Socket Layer (SSL) is a protocol that provides security for communications between client and server by implementing encrypted data and certificate-based authentication. Technically, the term "SSL" now refers to the Transport Layer ouSecurity (TLS) protocol, which is based on the original SSL specification.

SSL, or Secure Socket Layer, is a technology which allows web browsers and web servers to communicate over a secured connection. This means that the data being sent is encrypted by one side, transmitted, then decrypted by the other side before processing. This is a two-way process, meaning that both the server AND the browser encrypt all traffic before sending out data.

SSL is one of the most common ways of integrating secure communication on the internet, as it is a mature protocol that is well-supported by every major browser and a number of well-respected organizations provide third party SSL authentication services.

Why do I need SSL?

If you are transmitting sensitive information on a web site, such as credit card numbers or personal information, you need to secure it with SSL encryption. It is possible for every piece of data to be seen by others unless it is secured by an SSL certificate.

Your customers won't trust your web site without an SSL certificate. According to Gartner Research, nearly 70 percent of online shoppers have terminated an online order because they did not "trust" the transaction. In those cases, 64 percent indicated that the presence of a trust mark would have likely prevented the termination. An SSL certificate and a site seal could stop people from abandoning your website and that means more money for you.

HTTPS vs. HTTP

The most common way that SSL is integrated into Internet communications is through the HTTPS protocol. Calling HTTPS a "protocol" is not entirely accurate, as it is simply a combination of the HTTP and SSL protocols. When we say a message was sent using HTTPS, what we are actually saying is that the message was first encrypted using SSL, transmitted and received using normal HTTP protocol, and then decrypted by the receiver, also with SSL.
  • SSL offers security through encryption
  • the encryption process is made possible through the use of digital certificates verified by a third party Certificate Authority
  • the most common implementation of this process is the HTTPS combination protocol.

SSL Basics

The Secure Socket Layer protocol was created by Netscape to ensure secure transactions between web servers and browsers. The protocol uses a third party, a Certificate Authority (CA), to identify one end or both end of the transactions. This is in short how it works.
  1. A browser requests a secure page (usually https://).
  2. The web server sends its public key with its certificate.
  3. The browser checks that the certificate was issued by a trusted party (usually a trusted root CA), that the certificate is still valid and that the certificate is related to the site contacted.
  4. The browser then uses the public key, to encrypt a random symmetric encryption key and sends it to the server with the encrypted URL required as well as other encrypted http data.
  5. The web server decrypts the symmetric encryption key using its private key and uses the symmetric key to decrypt the URL and http data.
  6. The web server sends back the requested html document and http data encrypted with the symmetric key.
  7. The browser decrypts the http data and html document using the symmetric key and displays the information.

What is a certificate authority (CA)?

A Certificate Authority is a trusted third party whose role is to validate information about a web server, including the server’s domain name, its public key, and optionally the name of the company that runs it. Once this and other information is validated, the CA creates a TLS or SSL certificate with the information and digitally signs it using the CA’s private key. The public keys of many CAs (known as “root certificates”) are embedded in user agent software like browsers, enabling the browser to trust any TLS or SSL certificate that cryptographically chains up to one of those trusted roots.

After web server certificates are issued, CAs provide up-to-date status of those certificates so that if one needs to be revoked for whatever reason, browsers can be alerted to the change. Certificate status information is provided either via Certificate Revocation Lists (CRLs) or Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP).

CAs are an integral part of the trust model used by browsers and web servers, performing validation of web server details on behalf of end users. This model has permitted secure, authenticated Internet communication between billions of users and millions of web sites.

Private Key/Public Key

The encryption using a private key/public key pair ensures that the data can be encrypted by one key but can only be decrypted by the other key pair. This is sometime hard to understand, but believe me it works. The keys are similar in nature and can be used alternatively: what one key encrypts, the other key pair can decrypt. The key pair is based on prime numbers and their length in terms of bits ensures the difficulty of being able to decrypt the message without the key pairs. The trick in a key pair is to keep one key secret (the private key) and to distribute the other key (the public key) to everybody. Anybody can send you an encrypted message, that only you will be able to decrypt. You are the only one to have the other key pair, right? In the opposite , you can certify that a message is only coming from you, because you have encrypted it with you private key, and only the associated public key will decrypt it correctly. Beware, in this case the message is not secured you have only signed it. Everybody has the public key, remember!

The Symmetric key

Well, Private Key/Public Key encryption algorithms are great, but they are not usually practical. It is asymmetric because you need the other key pair to decrypt. You can't use the same key to encrypt and decrypt. An algorithm using the same key to decrypt and encrypt is deemed to have a symmetric key. A symmetric algorithm is much faster in doing its job than an asymmetric algorithm. But a symmetric key is potentially highly insecure. If the enemy gets hold of the key then you have no more secret information. You must therefore transmit the key to the other party without the enemy getting its hands on it.
As you know, nothing is secure on the Internet. The solution is to encapsulate the symmetric key inside a message encrypted with an asymmetric algorithm. You have never transmitted your private key to anybody, then the message encrypted with the public key is secure (relatively secure, nothing is certain except death and taxes). The symmetric key is also chosen randomly, so that if the symmetric secret key is discovered then the next transaction will be totally different.

Encryption algorithm

There are several encryption algorithms available, using symmetric or asymmetric methods, with keys of various lengths. Usually, algorithms cannot be patented, if Henri Poincare had patented his algorithms, then he would have been able to sue Albert Einstein... So algorithms cannot be patented except mainly in USA. OpenSSL is developed in a country where algorithms cannot be patented and where encryption technology is not reserved to state agencies like military and secret services. During the negotiation between browser and web server, the applications will indicate to each other a list of algorithms that can be understood ranked by order of preference. The common preferred algorithm is then chosen. OpenSSL can be compiled with or without certain algorithms, so that it can be used in many countries where restrictions apply.

The Hash

A hash is a number given by a hash function from a message. This is a one way function, it means that it is impossible to get the original message knowing the hash. However the hash will drastically change even for the slightest modification in the message. It is therefore extremely difficult to modify a message while keeping its original hash. It is also called a message digest. Hash functions are used in password mechanisms, in certifying that applications are original (MD5 sum), and in general in ensuring that any message has not been tampered with. It seems that the Internet Enginering Task Force (IETF) prefers SHA1 over MD5 for a number of technical reasons (Cf RFC2459 7.1.2 and 7.1.3).

Signing

Signing a message, means authentifying that you have yourself assured the authenticity of the message (most of the time it means you are the author, but not neccesarily). The message can be a text message, or someone else's certificate. To sign a message, you create its hash, and then encrypt the hash with your private key, you then add the encrypted hash and your signed certificate with the message. The recipient will recreate the message hash, decrypts the encrypted hash using your well known public key stored in your signed certificate, check that both hash are equals and finally check the certificate.

The other advantage of signing your messages is that you transmit your public key and certificate automatically to all your recipients.

There are usually 2 ways to sign, encapsulating the text message inside the signature (with delimiters), or encoding the message altogether with the signature. This later form is a very simple encryption form as any software can decrypt it if it can read the embedded public key. The advantage of the first form is that the message is human readable allowing any non complaint client to pass the message as is for the user to read,

while the second form does not even allow to read part of the message if it has been tampered with.

In The next posts we will expalin How to import third party certificate in local keystore.


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